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About Rif Republic

The Pick cross-references in this chapter are from the Morocco chapter of the SCWPM; Krause does not treat the Rif Republic as a separate entity. The Rif Republic, officially the Confederal Republic of the Tribes of the Rif, was a republic in northern Morocco that existed between 1921 and 1926 with its capital in Ajdir. As a result of the 1904 Anglo-French Agreement and the 1912 Franco-Spanish Treaty, the former Moorish Empire of Morocco came under the control of France and Spain. The French administered the majority of the country, with the Spanish Zone limited to a strip of the northern coast, sandwiched between their enclaves (presidios) of Ceuta and Melilla. This Spanish Zone consisted of two main tribal areas, Jibala in the west and Rif in the east. Over the ensuing decade, hatred towards the Spanish colonizers grew. In three major battles in 1921, a few thousand Rifi and Jibala tribesmen, led by Abdel Krim and his brother M’hommad, killed approximately 17,000 Spanish troops. Independence was proclaimed on 18 September 1921, Krim declared emir in February 1922, and the Rif Republic formally constituted on 1 February 1923.

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State Bank of the Riff

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